In fact, the very purpose of enacting the DV Act was to provide for a remedy which is an amalgamation of civil rights of the complainant i.e. aggrieved person. Intention was to protect women against violence of any kind, especially that occurring within the family as the civil law does not address this phenomenon in its entirety. It is treated as an offence Under Section 498-A of the Penal Code, 1860. The purpose of enacting the law was to provide a remedy in the civil law for the protection of women from being victims of domestic violence and to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence in the society. It is for this reason, that the Scheme of the Act provides that in the first instance, the order that would be passed by the Magistrate, on a complaint by the aggrieved person, would be of a civil nature and if the said order is violated, it assumes the character of criminality…”
[ Source: Kunapareddy Alias NookalaShanka Balaji Vs. Kunapareddy Swarna Kumari and Anr., (2016) 11 SCC 774]
Section 2(s), of Domestic Violence Act defines shared household asunder:
“(s) “shared household” means a household where the person aggrieved lives or at any stage has lived in a domestic relationship either singly or along with the respondent and includes such a household whether owned or tenanted either jointly by the aggrieved person and the respondent, or owned or tenanted by either of them in respect of which either the aggrieved person or the respondent or both jointly or singly have any right, title, interest or equity and includes such a household which may belong to the joint family of which the respondent is a member, irrespective of whether the respondent or the aggrieved person has any right, title or interest in the shared household;”
Questions raised before the Court:
(1) Whether definition of shared household under Section 2(s) of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 has to be read to mean that shared household can only be that household which is household of joint family or in which husband of the aggrieved person has a share?
Continue reading “What is a shared residence under Domestic Violence Act.” →
(2) Whether judgment of this Court in S.R. Batra and Anr. Vs. Taruna Batra, (2007) 3 SCC 169 has not correctly interpreted the provision of Section 2(s) of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 and does not lay down a correct law?
Dispute between Parents of the child and mother removed the child to India. Mother approaching family court at New Delhi, India and Father at Illinois, USA.
Mother/appellant and minor child are presently in New Delhi and the appellant has no intention to return to her matrimonial home in the U.S.A. The appellant has apprehensions and serious reservations on account of her past experience in respect of which we do not think it necessary to dilate in this proceedings. That is a matter to be considered by the Court of Competent Jurisdiction called upon to decide the issue of dissolution of marriage and/or grant of custody of the minor child, as the case may be. For the time being, we may observe that the parties must eschew from pursuing parallel proceedings in two different countries. For, the first marriage between the parties was performed in New Delhi as per Anand Karaj Ceremony and Hindu Vedic rites on 31st October, 2010 and the petition for dissolution of marriage has been filed in New Delhi. Whereas, the civil marriage ceremony on 19th March, 2011 at Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois, USA, was performed to complete the formalities for facilitating the entry of the appellant into the US and to obtain US Permanent Resident status. It is appropriate that the proceedings pending in the Family Court at New Delhi are decided in the first place including on the question of jurisdiction of that Court. Depending on the outcome of the said proceedings, the parties will be free to pursue such other remedies as may be permissible in law before the Court of Competent Jurisdiction. Continue reading “Custody of child who is citizen of USA” →
Why lock a couple in a dead marriage.
The Respondent wife, who did not appear before the trial court after filing of written statement, did not respond to the request made by the High Court for personal appearance.
In spite of service of Notice, the Respondent did not show any interest to appear in this Court also. This conduct of the Respondent by itself would indicate that she is not interested in living with the Appellant. Refusal to participate in proceeding for divorce and forcing the appellant to stay in a dead marriage would itself constitute mental cruelty [Samar Ghosh v. Jaya Ghosh1]. The High Court observed that no attempt was made by either of the parties to be posted at the same place. Without entering into the disputed facts of the case, we are of the opinion that there is no likelihood of the Appellant and the Respondent living together and for all practical purposes there is an irretrievable breakdown of the marriage.
Continue reading “Irretrievable break down of Marriage: Supreme Court can grant divorce to couple.” →
Divorce by mutual consent
Requirement is that such divorce shall be given by way of two motions. Second requirement of section 13-B of Hindu Marriage Act is that second motion can be entertained only after expiry of six months after the first motion is accepted by the court.
Question is whether the said period is directory or mandatory? In other words, can the court waive the said period and accept second motion before expiry of said period?
Where the Court dealing with a matter is satisfied that a case is made out to waive the statutory period under Section 13B(2), it can do so after considering the following :
i) the statutory period of six months specified in Section 13B(2), in addition to the statutory period of one year under Section 13B(1) of separation of parties is already over before the first motion itself; Continue reading “Divorce by Mutual Consent: Waiver of time for second motion” →
Supreme Court: Triple talaq is manifestly arbitrary.
(An abstract of the decision of Supreme Court dated 22 August 2017)
Types of Talaq in Muslim Law
‘Talaq-e-hasan’ is pronounced in the same manner, as ‘talaq-e-ahsan’. Herein, in place of a single pronouncement, there are three successive pronouncements. After the first pronouncement of divorce, if there is resumption of cohabitation within a period of one month, the pronouncement of divorce is treated as having been revoked.
The same procedure is mandated to be followed, after the expiry of the first month (during which marital ties have not been resumed). ‘Talaq’ is pronounced again. After the second pronouncement of ‘talaq’, if there is resumption of
cohabitation within a period of one month, the pronouncement of divorce is treated as having been revoked. It is significant to note, that the first and the second pronouncements may be revoked by the husband. If he does so,
either expressly or by resuming conjugal relations, ‘talaq’ pronounced by the husband becomes ineffective, as if no ‘talaq’ had ever been expressed. If the third ‘talaq’ is pronounced, it becomes irrevocable.
Therefore, if no revocation is made after the first and the second declaration, and the husband makes the third pronouncement, in the third ‘tuhr’ (period of purity), as soon as the third declaration is made, the ‘talaq’ becomes
irrevocable, and the marriage stands dissolved, whereafter, the wife has to observe the required ‘iddat’ (the period after divorce, during which a woman cannot remarry. Continue reading “Triple talaq is sinful and no more lawful in India” →
Forum Non Conveniens.
The doctrine of forum non conveniens can be applied in matrimonial proceedings for advancing interest of justice. Under the said doctrine, the court exercises its inherent jurisdiction to stay proceedings at a forum which is considered not to be convenient and there is any other forum which is considered to be more convenient for the interest of all the parties at the ends of justice.
In Spiliada Maritime (1986)3 All ER 843 case the House of Lords laid down the following principle:
“The fundamental principle applicable to both the stay of English proceedings on the ground that some other forum was the appropriate forum and also the grant of leave to serve proceedings out of the jurisdiction was that the court would choose that forum in which the case could be tried more suitably for the interest of all the parties and for the ends of justice.”
The criteria to determine which was a more appropriate forum, for the purpose of ordering stay of the suit, the court would look for that forum with which the action had the most real and substantial connection in terms of convenience or expense, availability of witnesses, the law governing the relevant transaction and the places where the parties resided or carried on business. If the court concluded that there was no other available forum which was more appropriate than the English court, it would normally refuse a stay. If, however, the court concluded that there was another forum which was prima facie more appropriate, the court would normally grant a stay unless there were circumstances militating against a stay. It was noted that as the dispute concerning the contract in which the proper law was English law, it meant that England was the appropriate forum in which the case could be more suitably tried. Continue reading “Transfer of matrimonial proceedings: Use video conferencing instead.” →
Attempt to persuade Husband to get separated from Joint Family with Parents is ‘Cruelty’:
Acceptance of Hindu Values:
Wife wanted the Appellant to get separated from his family. The evidence shows that the family was virtually maintained from the income of the Appellant husband. It is not a common practice or desirable culture for a Hindu son in India to get separated from the parents upon getting married at the instance of the wife, especially when the son is the only earning member in the family. A son, brought up and given education by his parents, has a moral and legal obligation to take care and maintain the parents, when they become old and when they have either no income or have a meagre income. In India, generally people do not subscribe to the western thought, where, upon getting married or attaining majority, the son gets separated from the family. In normal circumstances, a wife is expected to be with the family of the husband after the marriage. She becomes integral to and forms part of the family of the husband and normally without any justifiable strong reason, she would never insist that her husband should get separated from the family and live only with her.
Normal Indian Values:
Continue reading “Cruelty includes efforts to separate from joint family” →
THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984
(No.66 of 1984)
[14th September, 1984]
An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and
secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters
Be it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:
CHAPTER I – PRELIMINARY
1. Short title, extent and commencement. – 1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act,
(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States.
2. Definitions.- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,
a. “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional
Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court;
b.”notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
c. “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
d. “Family Court” means a Family Court established under Sec.3;
all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code
of Civil Procedure, 1908(5 of 1908), shall have the meanings respectively assigned to
them in that Code.
CHAPTER II – FAMILY COURTS
(3) Establishment of Family Courts.-(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and
powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,-
a. shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, establish for every area in
the State comprising a city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family
b. may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary.
(2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits.
Continue reading “Family Court Act (Bare Act)” →
The law governing sikh marriage in India.
Full Bare Act
Anand Marriage Act, 1909.
(Act 7 of 1909)
[AS ON 01.05.2014]
[22nd October, 1909]
An Act to remove doubts as to the validity of the marriage ceremony common among the Sikhs called Anand.
WHEREAS it is expedient to remove any doubts as to the validity of the marriage ceremony acidity of the marriage ceremony common among the Sikhs called Anand; It is hereby enacted as follows:–
1. Short title and extent: (1) This Act may be called the Anand Marriage Act, 1909; and
(2) It extends to the of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.*
2. Validity of Anand marriages: All marriages which may be or may have been duly solemnized according to the Sikh marriage ceremony called Anand [commonly known as Anand Karaj]## shall be, and shall be deemed to have been with effect from the date of the solemnization of each respectively , good and valid in law.
3. Exemption of certain marriages from Act: Nothing in this Act shall apply to:-
Continue reading “THE ANAND MARRIAGE ACT, 1909” →
Family court Bombay restrains Muslim man from marrying second time
The family court at Mumbai, India, in an unprecedented order, has restrained a Muslim US-returned paediatrician from marrying for the second time till he settles the rights and dues of his wife.
“The law and the religion both do not permit a Muslim man to perform another marriage as of a right by defeating and delaying the rights of his first wife,” said Judge Swati Chauhan in her May 13 order. Worli resident Dr Akbar Khan (name changed) is directed “not to perform another marriage” till the January 30, 2015 order to grant his estranged wife Sakina (name changed) alternate accommodation is complied with. And, until her prayer for maintenance is not “heard, decided and fully complied with”.
Wife Sakina (34) had moved the court after finding that husband Akbar (45) had posted an ad on an online matrimonial website that he is “desirous of marrying an unmarried young girl in the age group of 18-25 years”. She apprehended that Akbar’s remarriage would “frustrate and defeat her lawful rights”.
The couple married on May 27, 2001 and the next month moved to the US where four sons, between 12 and 4 years, were born. Frictions arose between them even before the family shifted back to Mumbai in September 2011 and into a leased flat in Versova.
Sakina had initially approached the family court in Bandra for custody of her three older children saying Akbar without her consent had snatched them from her. She claimed that the landlord had asked her to vacate the flat in July 2014. She pointed out that the Akbar had not complied with the court’s earlier order to allow her access to her 3 sons and alternate accommodation. She urged that Akbar be directed not to marry another woman till her rights are adjudicated upon.
Akbar’s advocate argued that his client had divorced Sakina, who had accepted the talaq as she had not challenged it. He said the parties are governed under the Muslim Personal Law and therefore a husband cannot be restricted from exercising his right to perform four marriages.Sakina’s advocate Neelofar Akhtar countered that a husband can be restricted under the law and religion if he is defeating the rights of his first wife. She argued that the widely accepted perception of four marriages is nothing but an “end product of misrepresentation of the holy Quran”. Akhtar cited the surah nisa ayat 3 and 129 saying Muslim men are permitted to enter into four marriages but it is after compliance of certain stipulations which serve as injunction.Judge Chauhan said that from a careful reading of its English version, it is understood that Muslim men are preached that they can marry for the second time only if they are able to be equitable to both the women. “In the same breath the surah nisa further states that practically this is not possible and therefore second marriage should not be contracted because it will cause injustice,” she added.Chauhan said various authors and authoritative writings have discouraged polygamy and stringent conditions were imposed on men even during the lifetime of Prophet Mohammad. The judge said Akbar’s “conduct is absolutely against the injunction of the Holy Quran”, as he has “shown least care towards the issue of food, clothing, maintenance and accommodation of the petitioner”.
Chauhan also took note of the Supreme Court’s February 2015 judgment in Khursheed Ahmad Khan versus State of UP case, which Akhtar again relied upon, which held that a practice cannot acquire religious sanction just because it is permitted and even the practice of having more wives than one can be regulated or prohibited in the interest of public order, morality and health.The judge noted that despite the order for providing suitable accommodation for Sakina and her 4-year-old son, Akbar has kept her away from the matrimonial home and her 3 sons strategically. He has also not provided her with any maintenance and “very conveniently” remained absent for the hearings. “In such a situation, if the respondent performs another marriage, the rights of the petitioner would definitely be defeated,” the judge said, concluding that “it is a fit case” to pass the direction.