Law of Ownership and Transfer of Property in India

An ebook on Law of Ownership and Transfer of Property in India.

Property Laws in India

Ownership of property is a matter of fact. For example, I have an immovable property and I can enjoy it till I am interrupted by some one. However in law a person in possession of property is not necessarily its owner. Yet a person in possession too have certain rights. All these aspects of ownership and possession are discussed in this book.

In addition to above there are various other matters. Like Lease of land. Gift of movable and immovable property. Exchange of properties. Mortgage of properties. Rights and duties of all the persons involved in all these transactions. These are other matters covered in this book.
This book deals with each aspect of Transfer of Properties Act, 1882 as applicable in India and also contains relevant leading precedents on most of the subjects which act as examples of the problem.
A unique feature of this ebook is that most of the cases/precedents/judgments referred and relied have relevant para extracted in the ebook with live links to the judgments. No more searching for relevant judgments which are just a click away.
A must for a legal practitioner or a litigant alike.

This ebook is now available at Amazon Kindle as well as Google Books and Google Play Store. Click on the respective link to read free sample.

Triple talaq is sinful and no more lawful in India

Supreme Court: Triple talaq is manifestly arbitrary.

(An abstract of the decision of Supreme Court dated 22 August 2017)

Types of Talaq in Muslim Law

‘Talaq-e-hasan’ is pronounced in the same manner, as ‘talaq-e-ahsan’. Herein, in place of a single pronouncement, there are three successive pronouncements. After the first pronouncement of divorce, if there is resumption of cohabitation within a period of one month, the pronouncement of divorce is treated as having been revoked.
The same procedure is mandated to be followed, after the expiry of the first month (during which marital ties have not been resumed). ‘Talaq’ is pronounced again. After the second pronouncement of ‘talaq’, if there is resumption of
cohabitation within a period of one month, the pronouncement of divorce is treated as having been revoked. It is significant to note, that the first and the second pronouncements may be revoked by the husband. If he does so,
either expressly or by resuming conjugal relations, ‘talaq’ pronounced by the husband becomes ineffective, as if no ‘talaq’ had ever been expressed. If the third ‘talaq’ is pronounced, it becomes irrevocable.
Therefore, if no revocation is made after the first and the second declaration, and the husband makes the third pronouncement, in the third ‘tuhr’ (period of purity), as soon as the third declaration is made, the ‘talaq’ becomes
irrevocable, and the marriage stands dissolved, whereafter, the wife has to observe the required ‘iddat’ (the period after divorce, during which a woman cannot remarry. Continue reading “Triple talaq is sinful and no more lawful in India”

Framing of Charge

Application of mind

Framing of charge is the first major step in a criminal trial where the court is expected to apply its mind to the entire record and documents placed therewith before the court. Taking cognizance of an offence has been stated to necessitate an application of mind by the court but framing of charge is a major event where the court considers the possibility of discharging the accused of the offence with which he is charged or requiring the accused to face trial. There are different categories of cases where the court may not proceed with the trial and may discharge the accused or pass such other orders as may be necessary keeping in view the facts of a given case.

Continue reading “Framing of Charge”

Robbery with Air Gun

Section 392 of the Penal Code which provides for robbery is as under:

“Whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the robbery be committed on the highway between sunset and sunrise, the imprisonment may be extended to fourteen years.”

As per Section 397, the sentence of imprisonment to be awarded under Section 392 cannot be less than 7 years if at the time of committing robbery the offender uses any deadly weapon or causes grievous hurt to any person or attempts to cause death or grievous hurt to any person.

Meaning of ‘uses’

A difficulty arose in several High Courts as to the meaning of the word “uses” in Section 397. The term ‘offender’ in that section, as rightly held by several High Courts, is confined to the offender who uses any deadly weapon- The use of a deadly weapon by one offender at the time of committing robbery cannot attract Section 397 for the imposition of the minimum punishment no another offender who had not used any deadly weapon. Continue reading “Robbery with Air Gun”

Fundamental Right to Privacy: Does it exist?

Right to privacy debate

Whether citizens of India have a fundamental right of privacy?

The controversy about right to privacy has been argued in a larger constitution bench of nine judges and judgement has been reserved. But what exactly is the controversy?

The fourth Amendment in the Constitution of USA provide following clause:

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Constitution of India has no such clause but in some of the cases the right to privacy has been read into the right to life because the life means a meaningful life and not merely an animal existence. Thus to make life more than animal existence, privacy is held to be part of right to life guaranteed by article 21 o Constitution of India, which is as under:

No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

Continue reading “Fundamental Right to Privacy: Does it exist?”

Criminal Conspiracy: Meaning and proof.

Definition of Conspiracy

Section 120A of IPC  defines criminal conspiracy which reads thus:

“120A. Definition of criminal conspiracy.- When two or more persons agree to do, or cause to be done,-

1) an illegal act, or

2) an act which is not illegal by illegal means, such an agreement is designated a criminal conspiracy:

Provided that no agreement except an agreement to commit an offence shall amount to a criminal conspiracy unless some act besides the agreement is done by one or more parties to such agreement in pursuance thereof. Continue reading “Criminal Conspiracy: Meaning and proof.”

Exercise of jurisdiction of judicial superintendence

Jurisdiction of High Court under article 227.

Article 227 is as under:

227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court
(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories interrelation to which it exercises jurisdiction
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, the High Court may
(a) call for returns from such courts;
(b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts; and
(c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts; Continue reading “Exercise of jurisdiction of judicial superintendence”

What is the meaning of word “production” and “manufacture”?

Extraction if amounts to manufacture or production?

Does extraction and processing of iron ore  amount  manufacture or production of any article or thing?

Production means amongst other things that which is produced; a thing that results from any action, process or effort, a product; a product of human activity or effort”. From the wide definition of the word “production”, it has to follow that mining activity for the purpose of production of mineral ores would come within the arnbit of the word “production” since ore is “a thing”, which is the result of human activity or effort.

In CIT v. N. C. Budharaja and Co. (1993) 204 ITR 412 (SC): AIR 1993 SC 2529: 1994 SCC Supl. (1) 280 it was held that the word ,production” is much wider than the word “manufacture”. It was said (page 423) :

“The word production has a wider connotation than the word manufacture. While every manufacture can be characterized as production, every production need not amount to manufacture …. Continue reading “What is the meaning of word “production” and “manufacture”?”

Arbitrary and discriminatory lagislation

Violation of equality clause in the Constitution.

Validity of economic legislation leaving a section of people.

Fourteenth Amendment of Constitution of USA and view of Supreme Court of USA:

When local economic regulation is challenged solely as violating the Equal Protection Clause, this Court consistently defers to legislative determinations as to the desirability of particular statutory discriminations. … Unless a classification trammels fundamental personal rights or is drawn upon inherently suspect distinctions such as race, religion, or alienage, our decisions presume the constitutionality of the statutory discriminations and require only that the classification challenged be rationally related to a legitimate state interest. States are accorded wide latitude in the regulation of their local economies under their police powers, and rational distinctions may be made with substantially less than mathematical exactitude. Legislatures may implement their programme step-by-step … in such economic areas, adopting regulations that only partially ameliorate a perceived evil and deferring complete elimination of the evil to future regulations … In short, the judiciary may not sit as a super-legislature to judge the wisdom or undesirability of legislative policy determinations made in areas that neither affect fundamental rights nor proceed along suspect lines …, in the local economic sphere, it is only the invidious discrimination, the wholly arbitrary act, which cannot stand consistently with the Fourteenth Amendment.

[Source: City of New Orleans v. Dukes 427 U.S. 297 (1976)]

The courts should not adopt a doctrinaire approach which might well choke all beneficial legislation and that legislation which is based on a rational classification is permissible. A law applying to a class is constitutional if there is sufficient basis or reason for it. In other words, a statutory discrimination cannot be set aside as the denial of equal protection of the laws if any state of facts may reasonably be conceived to justify it. Continue reading “Arbitrary and discriminatory lagislation”

Arrest in “harassment for dowry” cases

Section 498-A of Penal Code.

Section 498A was inserted in the statute with the laudable object of punishing cruelty at the hands of husband or his relatives against a wife particularly when such cruelty had potential to result in suicide or murder of a woman as mentioned in the Statement of Objects and Reasons of the Act 46 of 1983. The expression ‘cruelty’ in Section 498A covers conduct which may drive the women to commit suicide or cause grave injury (mental or physical) or danger to life or harassment with a view to coerce her to meet unlawful demand.8 It is a matter of serious concern that large number of cases continue to be filed under Section 498A alleging harassment of married women.

Big relief to relatives of accused:

Many of such complaints are not bona fide. At the time of filing of the complaint, implications and consequences are not visualized. At times such complaints lead to uncalled for harassment not only to the accused but also to the complainant. Uncalled for arrest may ruin the chances of settlement.

Directions by Supreme Court:

Continue reading “Arrest in “harassment for dowry” cases”