​Legal profession is not a commercial activity

Whether the legal profession is a commercial activity or is it a trade or business?

Argument in affirmative:

When a lawyer has his office-cum-residence in particular premises the domestic rate is applicable. Where however only the chamber is functioning, clearly commercial activities are being carried out and therefore commercial rate was rightly applied. According to him, the two categories of consumers have to be classified as domestic consumers and non domestic consumers. Those who are not domestic consumers fall to the second category and merely because for the sake of convenience the description has been given as “commercial” it does not make a difference. When one is not a domestic consumer, as a natural consequence the rate applicable to the other category has to be charged.

Deliberations:

The word ‘commerce’ is a derivative of the word ‘commercial’. The word ‘commercial’ originates from the word ‘commerce’ which has been defined in Black’s Law Dictionary- Sixth Edition as under:

Commerce.-The exchange of goods, productions, or property of any kind, the buying, selling, and exchanging of articles. Anderson v. Humble Oil and Refining Co.226 Ga.252, 174 S.E.2d 415.

The expression ‘commerce’ or ‘commercial’ necessarily has a concept of a trading activity. Trading activity may involve any kind of activity, be it a transport or supply of goods. Generic term for most all aspects is buying and selling. But in legal profession, there is no such kind of buying or selling nor any trading of any kind whatsoever. Therefore, to compare legal profession with that of trade and business is far from correct approach and it will totally be misplaced. Continue reading “​Legal profession is not a commercial activity”

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Power of High Court to quash criminal proceedings:

Inherent powers of High Courts:

Criminal Procedure Code, 1973, Section 482 saves inherent powers of High Courts in India.

More than 65 years back, in Emperor v. Khwaja Nazir Ahmed[6], it was observed by the Privy Council that Section 561A (corresponding to Section 482 of the Code) had not given increased powers to the Court which it did not possess before that section was enacted. It was observed, `The section gives no new powers, it only provides that those which the court already inherently possess shall be preserved and is inserted lest, as their Lordships think, it should be considered that the only powers possessed by the court are those expressly conferred by the Criminal Procedure Code and that no inherent power had survived the passing of the Code’.

Power to compound the offence:

Continue reading “Power of High Court to quash criminal proceedings:”

Inherent powers of the courts to do justice

All courts exist to do justice

All courts, whether civil or criminal possess, in the absence of any express provision, as inherent in their constitution, all such powers as are necessary to do the right and to undo a wrong in course of administration of justice on the principle “quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur et id sine quo res ipsae esse non potest” (when the law gives a person anything it gives him that without which it cannot exist). Continue reading “Inherent powers of the courts to do justice”