Object of Commercial Courts:
Though the Legislature, by enacting the Commercial Courts Act, 2015, intended expeditious disposal of suits which qualify as a commercial suits thereunder, but it is found that in most of the commercial suits, applications as this, for delayed filing of documents or for condonation of delay in taking requisite steps in such suits, are being filed and which were envisaged by the Commercial Courts Act when fixing the timelines for disposal of such cases, to be an exception rather than norm.
Duty of all stakeholders:
The effort to expedite, endeavoured by the Commercial Courts Act, cannot be only by the Courts, as appears to be understood, but must be by all the stakeholders i.e. litigants as well as the counsels. They are required to pay extra attention to,
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National Green Tribunal:
The Green Tribunal has been established under a constitutional mandate provided in Schedule VII List I Entry 13 of the Constitution of India, to implement the decision taken at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The Tribunal is a specialized judicial body for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment. The right to healthy environment has been construed as a part of the right to life under Article 21 by way of judicial pronouncements. Therefore, the Tribunal has special jurisdiction for enforcement of environmental rights.
Scope of appeal to Supreme Court:
Continue reading “Limitation period to approach National Green Tribunal”
Much before the enactment of RTI Act, which came on the statute book in the year 2005, Supreme Court repeatedly emphasised the people’s right to information to be a facet of Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. It has been held that the right to information is a fundamental right and flows from Article 19(1)(a), which guarantees right to speech. This right has also been traced to Article 21 which concerns about right to life and liberty. There are umpteen number of judgments declaring that transparency is the key for functioning of a healthy democracy.
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Framing of question of law:
High Court framed 6 questions of law at the time of admission of appeal but delivered no judgement on those questions. However it framed two other questions in the judgement and decided the appeal. Procedure if legal?
First, though it rightly framed six substantial questions of law at the time of admission of the appeal on 30.11.2002 as arising in the case but erred in not answering these questions.
The High Court had the jurisdiction to decide the second appeal only on the six substantial questions of law framed at the time of admitting the appeal. In other words, the jurisdiction of the High Court to decide the second appeal was confined only to six questions framed and not beyond it. Continue reading “Procedure for disposal of Second Appeal by High Court.”
Whether the MAFs are operating in India in violation of law in force in a clandestine manner, and no effective steps are being taken to enforce the said law?
If so, what orders are required to be passed to enforce the said law.
Acts constituting violation of law:
i) There is a bar under CA Act to practice as CAs for a company which includes a limited liability common partnership which has company as its partners. Continue reading “Legality of Multi-Nation Accounting Firm”
Decision without opportunity of hearing.
On behalf of the appellants it is urged that the appellants had received notice dated 08.07.2014 from the National Commission and, thereafter, they had sent a reply on 25.07.2014 praying that the matter may be heard in the Camp Sitting of the National Commission at Bengaluru. According to the appellants, no reply was received to this letter. On behalf of the claimants/respondents it is urged that the appellants were aware of the case and that the matter had been settled on the basis of a compromise arrived at by the appellants with another consumer and there is no need to set aside the order. After going through the record we find that the appellants had made a request that their matter be heard at Bengaluru. Copies of the orders passed thereafter have been placed on record and the record does not show that the appellants were ever informed that their request for having the matter heard at Bengaluru was either accepted or rejected. Therefore, we are of the considered opinion that the National Commission erred in not issuing fresh notice to the appellants. Accordingly, the order of the National Commission is set aside and the matter is remitted to the National Commission for hearing the same on merits.
Effect of non-supply of Enquiry Report to dismissed employee:
Test of prejudice:
When the employee is dismissed or removed from service and the inquiry is set aside because the report is not furnished to him, in some cases the non-furnishing of the report may have prejudiced him gravely while in other cases it may have made no difference to the ultimate punishment awarded to him. Hence to direct reinstatement of the employee with back-wages in all cases is to reduce the rules of justice to a mechanical ritual.
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Death Row Convicts
“Prisoners awaiting death sentence are not suffering imprisonment but are merely in safe custody to suffer sentence of death”
In view of the disparities in implementing the already existing laws, Supreme Court directed to frame the following guidelines for safeguarding the interest of the death row convicts.
1. Solitary Confinement:
Solitary or single cell confinement prior to rejection of the mercy petition by the President is unconstitutional. Almost all the prison Manuals of the States provide necessary rules governing the confinement of death convicts. The rules should not be interpreted to run counter to the above ruling and violate Article 21 of the Constitution. Continue reading “Prison conditions for death row convicts”
Application of mind
Framing of charge is the first major step in a criminal trial where the court is expected to apply its mind to the entire record and documents placed therewith before the court. Taking cognizance of an offence has been stated to necessitate an application of mind by the court but framing of charge is a major event where the court considers the possibility of discharging the accused of the offence with which he is charged or requiring the accused to face trial. There are different categories of cases where the court may not proceed with the trial and may discharge the accused or pass such other orders as may be necessary keeping in view the facts of a given case.
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